This article presents the findings of a research on the relationship of mother’s employment on children’s social adaptation and educational achievement. The research samples are 203 primary students (girls and boys) in the city of Damghan. The Behavioral scale of Roter is applied to measure the students’ rates of adaptation at school and home. The variables used to measure mother’s job satisfaction and job tension, is the extended occupations list and Estainments’ tension questionnaire. Data analysis shows that mother’s employment has improved students’ social adaptation and educational achievement at the fourth and fifth grades. Children with their mother’s occupation categorized under cultural activity, and those who are at management level, have the best educational achievement. In addition, there is a positive relationship between mother’s job satisfaction and children’s educational achievement and behavior.