Non-renewable natural resources play an important role in sustainable development of developing countries such as Iran. However, if natural resources are to be preserved for future generations, proper use of such resources will be imperative. Women are one of the prime users of natural resources. This study assesses the conservational behavior of rural women and factors influencing such behavior with regards to destruction, protection, and restoration of desert areas of Khuzestan province in Iran during the year 2006-2007.Using multi-stage random sampling techniques data is collected and rural women living in desert areas are interviewed. Result reveal rural women play in a vital role in protection, restoration and destruction of natural resources. Moreover, there is no significant relationship between personal characteristics and their activities in using natural resources. This implies that destruction of natural resources is not attributed to intentions of rural women. However, human basic needs such as searching for a place to live, unpredictable weather conditions, lack of conservation knowledge, financial difficulties, large family members, over grazing, and using woods as a means of fuel are the prime reason for destruction.