Document Type : Pazhoheshi- Bonyadi


1 Full Prof, in Department of Urban Planning, Faculty of Geography, University of Tehran

2 Corresponding author, Ph.D. Student in Urban Planning, Faculty of Geography, University of Tehran

3 M.A. in Urban planning, Arak Islamic Azad University


In recent decades, changes can be observed around the presence of women in urban public spaces. This paper investigates on the presence of women in these spaces in terms of selectivity or necessity. Method of research is survey and questionnaire is used to collect data. The statistical sample includes 128 male and 133 female residents of the city of Tabriz that are studied with random sampling. According to the research findings, freedom and independence of women for attending in public spaces is less than those of men. Family restrictions, female specific tasks and lack of performing suitable activities for women in public spaces such as park are the most important limiting factors for the presence of women in public spaces. The presence of women in this sphere has been intensively increased. With regard to the extensive presence of women in academic, educational and working centers, part of this increase is inevitable. Another reason is related to the reduction of men and households' resistance against women for their presence in public spheres. In other words, social attitudes (including both groups of women and men) have been transformed toward urban public spaces and participation of women in these spaces.


Main Subjects