Document Type : Practical article


Professor of Economics, Alzahra University, Tehran, Iran


Using cross-provinces and panel regressions, this paper investigates the interrelationship between gender equality and fertility in Iran for the period 2007-2012. The article attempts to explain the low fertility rate in Iran by distinguishing between two types of gender equity, i.e. gender equity in individual-oriented institutions and gender equity in family-oriented institutions. For this purpose, two models; i.e. fertility and gender equality,  are estimated. The first model shows that as gender equality (in general, and gender equality in labor market) increases, fertility follows a U shape pattern. The second model confirms a U shape relationship between fertility increase and gender equality (in general and in education). The results show that the transition from very high fertility to replacement-level fertility in Iran has been associated with a rapid shift toward high levels of gender equity in individual institutions such as education but with low levels of  equality in market employment, in combination with high level of gender equity within the family and  low level of  family-oriented institutions.


Main Subjects

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