In the last few decades, Iran has experienced sharp fertility decline. Studies indicate that women have a major role in childbearing; therefore, their empowerment and autonomy will lead to changes in their fertility behavior. This paper examines the relationship between family power structure and fertility behavior in the Tehran city. The data is collected from around 400 women in Tehran who are married and have at least one child. The results of the bivariate analysis showed that there is an insignificant relationship between fertility and access to valuable resources (education, employment, and economic capital), women autonomy, division of household labor, attitudes to gender inequality and family power structure. The results of the logistic regression analysis indicated that among all different variables, access to valuable resources and division of household labor are the strong determinants of dependent variable; as fertility rate reduces with the rise in access to valuable resources and decline in partnership in division of household labor. Women’s autonomy is another important variable affecting fertility rate; as fertility rate reduces with the rise in women’s autonomy. Given the results of this study, population policies in Iran in order to facilitate childbearing for couples should provide opportunities by which women can continue their economic activity, have their social participation, maintain and strengthen their power in family as well as promote childbearing.