Document Type : Research Paper


1 Associate Professor, Curriculim Studis, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran

2 PhD Student, Curriculum Studies, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran


The aim of this study was the content analysis of elementary textbooks based on gender orientation. Method of research was qualitative content analysis. Statistical population was textbooks of the elementary. Statistical sample of research includes Heavenly gifts (Hediehaye Asmani), social studies, and Persian books. Components of the study were including personality characteristics, political and social patterns and professional roles. Results showed that women have emotional and the subordinate role and men have intellectual personality characteristics and directive. Relation to job roles, men had jobs outside the home and women were in jobs related to nursing home or maximum of teaching and nursing role. About the social and political patterns as well as men in the form of social and political leadership patterns, the peacemakers and owners but in contrast, the pattern for women embodied in the form of the mother and the husband.


Main Subjects

[1] افشانی، سید علی‌رضا؛ عسکری ندوشن، عباس؛ فاضل نجف‌آبادی، سمیه (1388). «بازتولید نقش‌های جنسیتی در کتاب‌های فارسی مقطع ابتدایی»، پژوهش زنان، 7 (1)، ص 87ـ107.
[2] ایمان، محمد‌تقی؛ نوشادی، محمود‌رضا (1390) «تحلیل محتوای کیفی»، دو‌فصل‌نامة علمی تخصصی پژوهش، س 3، ش2، پاییز و زمستان، ص 15ـ44.
[3] حاضری، علی‌محمد؛ احمدپور خرمی، علیرضا (1391). «بازنمایی جنسیت در کتب فارسی مقاطع تحصیلی راهنمایی و دبیرستان در سال تحصیلی 1388ـ1389»، زن در توسعه و سیاست، دورۀ10، شمارۀ3، ص96-75.
[4] حجازی، الهه (1385). «اصلاح سیمای زن در کتاب‌های دورۀ ابتدایی: راهی به ‏سوی دست‏یابی به فرصت‏های برابر»، فصل‌نامۀ تعلیم و تربیت، ش3، پیاپی87، ص 121ـ145.
[5] شریف، مصطفی (1390). «برنامۀ درسی؛ گفتمان نظریه، پژوهش و عمل برنامۀ ‏درسی پست‏مدرن»، اصفهان: جهاد دانشگاهی.
[6] عابدینی بلترک، میمنت؛ لیاقتدار، محمد‌جواد؛ منصوری، سیروس (1393). «بازنمایی نقش‌های جنسیتی در کتاب‌های درسی سال ششم دورة ابتدایی»، زن و جامعه، س 5، ش 4، ص19ـ34.
[7] فتحی واجارگاه، کورش (1386). برنامۀ درسی به‏ سوی هویت‏های جدید (شرحی بر نظریات معاصر برنامۀ درسی)، ج اول، تهران: آییژ.
[8] فرهمندپور، فهیمه؛ بحرانی‌پور، الهام (1392). «بازنمایی نقش اجتماعی‌ـ سیاسی زنان در کتاب‌های درسی»، زن در توسعه و سیاست، دورة 11، ش 4، ص595ـ610.
[9] فروتن، یعقوب (1389). «جامعه‌پذیری جنسیتی در کتاب‌های درسی مدارس ایران»، زن در توسعه و سیاست (پژوهش زنان). دورة 8، ش 3، ص 195ـ216.
[10] فروتن، یعقوب (1390). «بازنمایی الگوهای اشتغال زنان در متون درسی ایران»، زن در توسعه و سیاست، دورة9، ش 2، ص 39ـ80.
[11] هاشمی، سهیلا؛ شهرآرای، مهرناز (1387). «بررسی باورها و ارزش‌های دانش‌آموزان، خانواده، و کتاب‌های درسی دربارة تساوی جنسیت»، مطالعات زنان، س 6، ش 2، ص27ـ46.
[12].Anderson, D. A and Hamilton,M(2005)gender role stereotyping of parents in childrens picture books: the invisible father, sex roles, vol. 52. No3-4. pp145-151.
[13].Apple, M (1979). Curriculum and Reproduction, Curriculum Inquiry,9(3). pp 231-252.
[14].Apple, M. A(2004,a) controlling the Work of teachers In: Flinders, D. j & Thornton, S.J(Ed).The Curriculum Studies Reader, Pp: 183-199. New York: Routledgefalmer.
[15].Apple, M. W. (2004,b). Ideology and Curriculum, London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.
[16].Aronowitz S, Giroux, H (2003) Education under Siege: the Conservative, Liberal, and Radical debate over Schooling .
[17].Blount, L(1990)National case studies of equal opportunities: Irland, IN: Wiener, The primary school and equal opportunities,Chassell: council of Europe.
[18].Bowles, S. & Gitis, H (1976). Schooling in Capitalist America: Educational Reform and the Contradictions of Economic Life; London: Routledge and Kegon Paul.
[19].Chung,H.(2000)womans roles and gender issues in primary school textbooks: Korea and Mexico, santioago: University of California
[20].Collins, L. et all.(1984)sex- role stereotyping in childrens Literature: A change from the past, Childhood Education, Vol. 90, pp 278-285
[21].Crabb, P.B & Bielawski, D(1994)The social representation of material culture and gender in childrens book, Sex Role stereotyping in childrens literature: a change from the past, childhood education, vol . 90. pp 278-285
[22].Crespi, L(2003) Gender socialization within the family: a study on adolescents and their parents in Great Britain. BHPS conference.
[23].Evans,L and Davis,K(2000). No sissy boys here: a content analysis of the representation of masculinity in elementary school reading textbooks,sex roles, 42(3/4): pp 255-270.
[24].Foulds, K(2013). The continua of identities in postcolonial curricula: Kenyan students’ pe receptions of gender in school textbooks. International Journal of Educational Development N. 33: pp 165–174.
[25].Giroux, H (1983).Theories of Reproduction and Resistance in the New Sociology of Education: A Critical Analysis, Harvard Educational Review,53(3), pp 261-293.
[26].Gooden,A.M and Gooden,M.A.(2001). Gender representation in notable children's picture books: 1995-1999, Sex roles, 45(1/2): 89-101.
[27].Kereszty, O(2009). Gender in Textbooks. Practice and Theory in Systems of Education, Volume 4 Number 2:1-7.
[28].Kobia, J. M(2009) Femininity and Masculinity in English Primary school textbooks in Kenya. The International Journal of Language Society and Culture. Issue 28. pp 57-71.
[29].Law,K.W.K and Chan,A.H.N(2004).Gender roles stereotyping in HongKong's primary school Chinese language subject textbook, AJWS,10(1): 49-69.
[30].Mayring, P. , "Qualitative content analysis. Forum", Qualitative Social Research, 1(2) 33.
[31].McLaren, P. ( 2003). Life in Schools: An Introduction to Critical Pedagogy in the Foundations of Education. White Plains, New York. Longman, Inc.
[32].McLaren, P. ( 1995). Critical Pedagogy and predatory culture. London: Routledge.
[33].Peterson, S. B & Lach, M. a(1990). Gender sterotypes in childrens book: their prevalence and influence on cognitive and effective development, Gender and Education, vol2. Issue 2: pp 185-197.
[34].Pinar, W (2004).The Reconceptualization of Curriculum Studies In: Flinders, D. j & Thornton, S.J(Ed).The Curriculum Studies Reader, Pp: 149-158. New York: Routledgefalmer.
[35].pinar, w. f, Reynolds. W. M, slattery. P, and taubman, p. m (2008) understanding curriculum: an introduction to the study of historical and contemporary curriculum discourses. New York: peter long publishing.
[36].Reid, W.A & Walker, D. F (1975) Case studies in curriculum change. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.
[37].Ross, A (2000). Curriculum: Construction and Critique. London: Falmer Press.
[38].Samson, A(1998) children voices in Italian textbooks, Roma: university of Roma.
[39].Tang, H., Chen, B., and Zhang, W (2010). Gender Issues in Mathematical Textbooks of Primary Schools, Journal of Mathematics Education, 3(2): pp 106-114.
[40].Weitzman, L ; Eifler , D ;Hokada , E and Ross,C(1972). Sex- role socialization in picture books for pre- school children, American journal of sociology,77: pp 11-25.
[41].Whiteley, P(1996). The gender fairness of integrated science textbooks used in jamaican high schools. International journal of science education. 18(8): pp 969-976.