Document Type : Research Paper


1 Assistant Professor of Philosophy of Education, Department of Education, Tabriz University, Tabriz, Iran

2 MA in Human Resource Development, Department of Psychology and Education, Tabriz University, Tabriz, Iran


The purpose of this study is to represent the experiences of the students referring to the consulting center of Tabriz University in terms of their sense of existential loneliness. The present study is conducted using a qualitative and phenomenological methodology and purposeful sampling and through deep interview with 18 students who referred to the consulting center. The interviews were recorded and analyzed by the method of Sterbent and the Carpenter. The findings of the experiences of existential loneliness of students were identified in the 4 main themes including perceived feelings, positive loneliness, negative loneliness and a way to reduce negative loneliness. The female students of Tabriz University from existential loneliness had a feeling of thrownness, anxiety and separation, which had both positive and negative consequences. The establishment approaches can explain the existential situation of students in existence and excellence about this type of sense of loneliness in the students.


Main Subjects

[1] قرآن کریم.
[2] ابن شعبه حرانی، حسن (1404ق/1390). تحف‌العقول، به تصحیح علی‌اکبر غفاری، نرم‌افزار جامع‌الاحادیث نور 3، قم: انتشارات جامع مدرسین.
[3] ایمان‏زاده، علی؛ علیپور، سریه (1396). «واکاوی تجربیات زنان سالمند از احساس تنهایی: مطالعه‏ای پدیدارشناختی»، مجلة روان‌شناسی پیری، س 3، ش 1 پیاپی 8، ص31ـ43.
[4] ایمان‌زاده، علی؛ سلحشوری، احمد (1390). نگاهی به رویکردهای تحلیلی و فراتحلیلی در فلسفة تعلیم و تربیت، همدان: انتشارات دانشگاه بوعلی.
[6] داد، سیما (1385). «فرهنگ اصطلاحات ادبی (واژه‌نامۀ مفاهیم و اصطلاحات ادبی فارسی و اروپایی: تطبیقی و توضیحی)». چ 3، تهران: مروارید.
[5] صیادپور، زهره به نقل از خلعتبری جواد (1392). «بررسی رابطة عزت نفس، سطح دلبستگی و احساس تنهایی در دانش‌آموزان ناشنوای مقطع ابتدایی شهر رشت»، فصل‌نامة روا‌ن‌شناسی تربیتی دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد تنکابن، س 4، ش 2 پیاپی 14، ص 1ـ15.
[7] قابضی، فاطمه؛ پاکدامن، شهلا و دیگران (1393). «احساس تنهایی معنوی مذهبی: ساخت و اعتباریابی مقیاسی برای سنجش ابعاد مثبت و منفی احساس تنهایی»، روان‌شناسی و دین، س 8، ش اول پیاپی ۲۹، ص ۶۳ـ۸4.
[8] آل کثیر، محمد. ترجمۀ مصطفی ملکیان (1386). سیری در سپهر جان: مجموعه مقالات و مقولاتی در معنویت، تهران: نگاه معاصر.
[9] Amichai-Hamburger, Y., & Ben-Artzi, E. (2003). “Loneliness and Internet use”. Computers in human behavior, 19(1), PP 71-80.
[10] Beck, A. T. (Ed.). (1979). “Cognitive therapy of depression”. Guilford press.
[11] Besser, A., Flett, G. L., & Davis, R. A. (2003). “Self-criticism, dependency, silencing the self, and loneliness: A test of a mediational model”. Personality and Individual Differences, 35(8), PP 1735-1752.
[12] Bogaerts, S., Vanheule, S., & Desmet, M. (2006). “Feelings of subjective emotional loneliness: An exploration of attachment”. Social Behavior and Personality: an international journal, 34(7), PP 797-812.
[13] Canham, S. L. (2015). “What's loneliness got to do with it? Older women who use benzodiazepines”. Australasian journal on ageing, 34(1).
[14] Davila, J., Steinberg, S. J., Kachadourian, L., Cobb, R., & Fincham, F. (2004). “Romantic involvement and depressive symptoms in early and late adolescence: The role of a preoccupied relational style”. Personal Relationships, 11(2), PP 161-178.
[15] de Jong Gierveld, J. (1998). “ A review of loneliness: concept and definitions, determinants and consequences”. Reviews in Clinical Gerontology, 8(1), PP 73-80.
[16] Elhageen, A. A. M. (2004). “ Effect of interaction between parental treatment styles and peer relations in classroom on the feelings of loneliness among deaf children in Egyptian schools.
[17] Ettema, E. J., Derksen, L. D., & van Leeuwen, E. (2010). “Existential loneliness and end-of-life care: A systematic review”. Theoretical medicine and bioethics, 31(2), PP 141-169.
[18] Fahlman, S. A., Mercer, K. B., Gaskovski, P., Eastwood, A. E., & Eastwood, J. D. (2009). “Does a lack of life meaning cause boredom? Results from psychometric, longitudinal, and experimental analyses”. Journal of social and clinical psychology, 28(3), PP 307-340
[19] Gifford, R. (2002). “Environmental psychology: Practice and principles”. Colville, WA: Optimal Books.
[20] Grimes, K. (2007). “Coming to college: Correlations between loneliness, homesickness and spiritual well-being”. In Midwestern Christian Psychology Conference at the University of Arkansas in Fayetteville. Retrieved October (Vol. 26, P 2011).
[21] Harper, M. S., Dickson, J. W., & Welsh, D. P. (2006). “Self-silencing and rejection sensitivity in adolescent romantic relationships”. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 35(3), PP 435-443.
[22] Heinrich, L. M., & Gullone, E. (2006). “The clinical significance of loneliness: A literature review”. Clinical psychology review, 26(6), PP 695-718.
[23] Henderson, V. P., Clemow, L., Massion, A. O., Hurley, T. G., Druker, S., & Hébert, J. R. (2012). “The effects of mindfulness-based stress reduction on psychosocial outcomes and quality of life in early-stage breast cancer patients: a randomized trial”. Breast cancer research and treatment, 131(1), PP 99-109.
[24] Holloway, I., & Todres, L. (2006). “Grounded theory”. The research process in nursing, 5, PP 192-207.
[25] Horowitz, L. M., French, R. D. S., & Anderson, C. A. (1982). “The prototype of a lonely person”. Loneliness: A sourcebook of current theory, research, and therapy, PP 183-205.
[26] Jones, W. H., Freemon, J. E., & Goswick, R. A. (1981). “The persistence of loneliness: Self and other determinants”. Journal of personality, 49(1), PP 27-48.
[27] Kirkpatrick, L. A., & Shaver, P. R. (1992). “An attachment-theoretical approach to romantic love and religious belief”. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 18(3), PP 266-275.
[28] Kolpachnikov, V. (2013). “Client-centered and existential approaches: are they mostly similar or different? ”
[29] Kaufmann, W. (2016). “Existentialism from Dostoevsky to Sartre”. Pickle Partners Publishing.
[30] Le Roux, A., & Connors, J. (2001). “A cross-cultural study into loneliness amongst university students”. South African Journal of Psychology, 31(2), PP 46-52.
[31] Lindgren, B. M., Sundbaum, J., Eriksson, M., & Graneheim, U. H. (2014). “Looking at the world through a frosted window: experiences of loneliness among persons with mental ill‐health”. Journal of psychiatric and mental health nursing, 21(2), PP 114-120.
[32] Long, C. R., & Averill, J. R. (2003). “Solitude: An exploration of benefits of being alone”. Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour, 33(1), PP 21-44.
[33] Michela, J. L., Peplau, L. A., & Weeks, D. G. (1982). “Perceived dimensions of attributions for loneliness”. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 43(5), P 929.
[34] Nilsson, B., Lindström, U. Å., & Nåden, D. (2006). “Is loneliness a psychological dysfunction? A literary study of the phenomenon of loneliness”. Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, 20(1), PP 93-101.
[35]Rosedale, M. (2009, March). “Survivor loneliness of women following breast cancer”. In Oncology nursing forum (Vol. 36, No. 2).
[36] Rotenberg, K. J., MacDonald, K. J., & King, E. V. (2004). “The relationship between loneliness and interpersonal trust during middle childhood”. The Journal of genetic psychology, 165(3), PP 233-249.
[37]Sand, L., & Strang, P. (2006). “Existential loneliness in a palliative home care setting”. Journal of palliative medicine, 9(6), PP 1376-1387.
[38]Senkevich, L. V. (2016). “Phenomenological and process dynamic characteristics of existential identity crisis”. Global Media Journal, 1.
[39] Skinner, A. (1992). Another kind of home: a review of residential child care”. Unipub.
[40] Stephan, E., Fäth, M., & Lamm, H. (1988). “Loneliness as related to various personality and environmental measures: Research with the German adaptation of the UCLA Loneliness Scale”. Social Behavior and Personality: an international journal, 16(2), PP 169-174.
[41] Thane, P. (2000). “Old age in English History: Past Experiences. Present Issues”. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
[42] Townsend, K. C., & McWhirter, B. T. (2005). . (1992). “Connectedness: A review of the literature with implications for counseling, assessment, and research”. Journal of Counseling & Development, 83(2), PP 191-201.
[43] Van Manen, M. (2016). “Researching lived experience: Human science for an action sensitive pedagogy”. Routledge.
[44] West, D. A., Kellner, R., & Moore-West, M. (1986). “The effects of loneliness: a review of the literature”. Comprehensive psychiatry, 27(4), PP 351-363.
[45] Westin, A. (1970). “Privacy and freedom”. 1967. Atheneum, New York.
[46] Wiseman, H., Guttfreund, D. G., & Lurie, I. (1995). “Gender differences in loneliness and depression of university students seeking counselling”. British Journal of Guidance & Counselling, 23(2), PP 231-243.
[47] Wiseman, H., Mayseless, O., & Sharabany, R. (2006). “Why are they lonely? Perceived quality of early relationships with parents, attachment, personality predispositions and loneliness in first-year university students”. Personality and individual differences, 40(2), PP 237-248.
[48] Withy, K. (2014). “Situation and limitation: making sense of Heidegger on thrownness”. European Journal of Philosophy, 22(1), PP 61-81.
[49] Wyatt, W. J., & Midkiff, D. M. (2006). “Biological psychiatry: A practice in search of a science”. Behavior and Social Issues, 15(2), 132. PP 62-65.
[50] Yalom, I. D. (1980). “ Existential psychotherapy”. (Vol. 1). New York: Basic Books.
[51] Zoellner, T., & Maercker, A. (2006). “Posttraumatic growth in clinical psychology—A critical review and introduction of a two component model”. Clinical psychology review, 26(5), PP 626-653.