Document Type : Research Paper


1 Demography, Faculty of Social Sciences, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran

2 Assistant Prof. National Institute for Population Research (NIPR)- Tehran- Iran


Gender is recognized as an important factor in protecting the environment. Nevertheless, gender mainstreaming is considered still a secondary option and waste of funds. This study evaluates the impact of the gender gap on the environmental performance of selected countries in the world using the World Economic Forum data and the clustering k-mean and ordinary least squares regression methods in the framework of population metabolism theory during 2014-2020. The results of spatial clustering showed that South and Center of Africa and South of Asia countries are in cluster 1 with the lowest values of economic participation and opportunity, health and survival, educational attainment, and political empowerment. Therefore, they must first consider the dimensions of educational attainment and health and survival. Cluster 2 with moderate values in South America, East Asia, Middle East, and Eastern Europe To achieve membership in Cluster 3 as well as Cluster 3 itself in Western Europe, North America, and Australia to further protect the environment must be emphasized these dimensions: economic participation-opportunity and political empowerment of women. In addition, the results of ordinary multivariate Ordinary least Squares regression showed that the dimensions of the gender gap explain 41% of the fluctuations in environmental performance. Thus, it can be said that the instability of environmental performance in Asian, African, and South American countries is due to the gender gap. In addition, the two dimensions of women's educational attainment and political empowerment are the most important components influencing environmental performance.


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