Document Type : Research Paper
1 Department of Demography, Faculty of Social Sciences, Allameh Tabataba’i University, Tehran, Iran
2 Department of Islamic Thought, faculty of Theology and Religious Studies, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran
The need for intimacy with the opposite sex is a natural and innate need in all human beings, and marriage is a suitable way to meet this need. The recent decrease in the age of awareness and sexual maturity, on the one hand, and also the emergence of economic problems, on the other, have put many young people in a difficult situation. The changes in the value system have gradually provided the basis for the emergence of new patterns of sexual behavior among some Iranian youth. Meanwhile, one of the important factors that influence the youth values and attitudes towards family, marriage, and communication patterns with the opposite sex is modern communication media. To manage the process of this influence more accurately by the cultural managers, it is necessary to clarify its details carefully.
Target: The purpose of this study is to study the relationship between cultural consumption (reading books, using satellites and using of virtual networks) and youth attitudes toward girl-boy friendships. In particular, it is considered to investigate and accurately identify the dimensions of this impact. Another important aim of research is to identify the variables that can affect the strength and weakness of girls' susceptibility to cultural consumption.
Method: The research is a cross-sectional survey whose data was collected using a structured questionnaire tool and was carried out in 1397. The statistical population includes girls who have never been married, aged 20-34 years in Tehran. The sampling method was a combination of multi-stage and systematic random classification methods. To measure the bivariate relationship between the dependent variable which is an interval (girls' attitude towards girl-boy friendship) and the independent variables which are on an interval scale (age, education level, level of religiosity, reading books, satellite usage and social networks usage) Pearson correlation coefficient was used. Moreover, to measure the bivariate relationship between the dependent variable and the residence area variable, which is on an ordinal scale, the F test was used. Considering that the dependent variable is an interval, to measure the multivariate analysis between the dependent variable and the independent variables, the multivariate linear regression test was used.
Findings: The distribution of girls according to age groups indicates that 40.5% are in the age group of 20-24, 34.3% are in the age group of 25-29, and 25.2% are in the age group of 30-34. The findings indicated a high prevalence of positive attitude towards girl-boy friendship among girls. The findings showed that only 19.8% of the participants - less than one fifth - of the studied girls had a negative attitude towards such relationships. Considering the negative consequences of these friendships for personal, familial and social life, this is an alarm that emphasizes the need to educate and inform young. The next noteworthy finding is the low rate of book reading among the young people. According to the findings, the average book reading among more than 60% of girls aged 20-24 was zero to less than one hour during the day. Considering the role of book reading in transferring the cultural heritage, strengthening awareness and wisdom, modeling correct and low-risk thinking and behavior in the life, the low reading per capita, especially among the young generation, is a serious warning and requires a detailed pathological study. Especially, it should be seen what other activities replace this useful time and what.
Conclusion: Emphasize two important principles about how to manage friendship relationships among young people: teaching media literacy and religious education; especially the consolidation of religious beliefs, which in turn will lead to adherence to religious requirements and a strong and effective inner, emotional connection with God. Therefore, another proposal of the research is planning of more efficient and effective religious education of the young generation from childhood and adolescence. Religious teachings are full of moral teachings, including teachings about preserving the privacy of communication with the opposite sex, in such a way that religious beliefs create a strong motivation for self-restraint and practical commitment in people, and this self-control is the basis for more correct management of risky behaviors, even in the absence of an external observer. According to the findings, and considering the huge amount of time young people spend in cyberspace, one of the most important strategies for cultural intervention and management can be the production of valuable content that suits the needs and tastes of the young generation in cyberspace.