Document Type : Practical article


1 . Ph.D. Student of political science (field of political sociology), Department of political science, Tehran central Branch, Islamic Azad University, Iran,

2 Faculty of Political Science, Islamic Azad University Central Tehran Branch

3 Department of Political Science, Islamic Azad University, Iran

4 Department of Political Science, Iranian Issues, Zahedan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Zahedan, Iran



In any society, the political participation of social groups is formed based on the social and cultural structures of that society, which makes participation reasonable or traditional. The political participation of Baloch women has also been formed on the same basis. In this regard, according to the present question, how has the Balochistan stratification system brought the political participation of Baloch women under its radius? It was tried to study the political participation of Baloch women according to social stratification.

The current research was conducted with a contextual method, as well as with a semi-structured interview technique and targeted sampling of eleven Baloch men and women.

The findings of the research show that the political participation of Baloch women has been under the influence of social stratification in Balochistan. Despite the fact that the background factors such as: patriarchy, gender socialization, religious concepts and historical and mental backgrounds are similar, but women's participation has been formed according to the social stratifications of each part of Balochistan region. According to social stratifications, including: tribal stratification in northern Balochistan, caste stratification in central and southern Balochistan, and economic and tribal stratification in coastal Balochistan, which affects the political participation of not only women but all the people of the region.

Also, in the current research, the social stratification theory of "Max Weber" and its three forms "wealth, power and dignity" were also used. The three forms of Max Weber's stratification theory apply to the social stratification of Balochistan and the mechanism that involves this stratification in women's political participation. This means that the political participation of women in the Baluchistan region, in terms of qualitative understanding of this participation, has become a collective action by the influential and superior classes in this region. In the end, what can be taken from this female presence is the continuation of the previous social hierarchy, of course, this time with the use of new democratic tools.

Based on the contextual method and the central phenomenon obtained, i.e. "retrospection", the social stratification of the Baluchistan region, despite technological, educational developments, etc., is still based on its previous social stratifications, and there has been little change in the social stratifications of Baluchistan region.

On the other hand, such a tendency towards the past in the cultural structure of Balochistan has caused the lack of meritocracy in political and social competitions; For example, the education and expertise of the candidates and participants does not play a significant role in the political equations of Balochistan. Based on this, it can be said that "retrospection" has become one of the factors of the continuation of underdevelopment in Baluchistan region, and at the same time, underdevelopment has also caused the reproduction of pastism in this region. In fact, we see a back-and-forth relationship between these two concepts, which fulfill each other other in a vicious circle.

Although this research was conducted to investigate the political participation of Baloch women, the results of the qualitative research that focused on the hidden and more complex aspects of this participation described a model of participation that gives meaning not only to women, but also to the whole of political participation in Baluchistan society. In this context, women's participation is not based on their gender, but on the basis of belonging to certain classes and in some cases even as a tool at the disposal of that class


Political participation, social stratification, Baloch women, retrospect, contextual method.


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