Document Type : Practical article
1 کارشناس مسوول
2 Associate Professor in Demograhy, University of Tehran
The purpose of this research is to analyze of unemployment duration and compare it among Iranian men and women in the period of 2012-2018. In this study, an attempt has been made to investigate the effect of four variables of gender and age, education level, and marital status of unemployment duration of job seekers aged 20 to 45 referring to employment centers across the country. This study has been carried out with the help of the statistical technique of survival background analysis, through the refinement and analysis of about two million data records (collected by job seekers across the country and under the supervision of the Ministry of Cooperation, Labor and Social Welfare). The findings of this study indicate that compared to men, women have longer periods of unemployment and less chance to get a job. In explaining this finding, it can be said; Probably, one of the reasons could be that there are more jobs for men that do not suit the conditions of women. And in other words, women are facing limited job variety. Marriage and having children and raising children by women can also be one of the reasons for increasing the length of their unemployment period compared to men, which can be justified according to gender theories. Because gender theories, especially in Iranian culture, consider the main duties of women to be mainly education and upbringing of children, while in this culture, providing the income needed by the family has been the responsibility of men, and therefore it is expected to impose such a duty on men. to reduce the period of unemployment for this group.
Women and men looking for work in the age groups of 20 to 24 years have a lower average length of unemployment and more chances to get a job and get out of unemployment compared to other age groups. This finding can be explained with the help of job search theory. Because people aged 25 to 45, probably due to the improvement of their education level and skills, have more expectations for receiving high-paying jobs, and this causes them not to accept any job with any level of pay and therefore give up. They search for more jobs, which ultimately increases the length of the unemployment period among these people. Married, divorced and widowed job seekers (except for divorced and widowed men) have a lower risk of unemployment than single people. It seems that married, divorced and widowed people (especially among women) are under more pressure than single people to get a job in order to earn money and meet the needs of the family due to family responsibility and the burden of taking care of the family. They usually accept any job with any salary level. On the other hand, single people, due to having enough opportunity and without financial pressures, decide to accept or not accept the proposed job, and this may lead to an increase in the length of their unemployment period compared to married people. It is consistent with job search theory.
In both groups of men and women, uneducated job seekers have the highest unemployment risk and people with a master's degree and doctorate are in the second highest unemployment risk category. The chances of leaving unemployment are higher for people with secondary, diploma, pre-university and seminary education levels compared to other education levels. This finding can be explained based on the skill theory (education and training). According to this theory, training and skill training programs increase the chances of a job seeker to find a job. Participating in training programs can provide a positive sign to employers and also reduce uncertainty about the employability of job applicants. According to other findings of this study, people with a master's degree and doctorate are in the second highest risk of unemployment. have. On the other hand, the chance of leaving unemployment is higher for people with secondary, diploma, pre-university and seminary education levels compared to other education levels, so it seems that Iran's labor market has not yet reached a stage of complexity and maturity. which wants people with education levels higher than diploma on a wide level. And almost the skill requirement of the labor market has remained at the same diploma and sub-diploma levels for most jobs, due to the lack of innovation and the very slow growth of skill-oriented jobs.
Therefore, it is suggested to pay serious attention to the changes in the age and gender structure of the population in the policy making and management process of the country's labor market. Women are half of the country's population,