Mahsa Tizchang; sharareh mehdizadeh
The present study has described and analyzed the experiences of women domestic workers from living in multiple and different worlds. The aim of this study was to understand the lived experiences of these women as a silent and marginalized group due to the lack of an official position in the legal structure ...
The present study has described and analyzed the experiences of women domestic workers from living in multiple and different worlds. The aim of this study was to understand the lived experiences of these women as a silent and marginalized group due to the lack of an official position in the legal structure and the weakness of research. According to the statistics of the International Labor Organization, there are currently about 100 million domestic workers in the world, most of whom are women and include the informal economy. First of all, the questions of this study are based on the description of the salient points of domestic worker women's experience of the work and life situation in a context of different worlds. In what situations and with which mechanisms do these women experience difference and inequality? How does the perception resulting from such an experience manifest itself in people's consciousness? How can the more structural implications of such situational perception be explained?
The approach and method is based on the existential phenomenology of Maurice Merleau-Ponty, which is focused on the experience of the embodied subject in the world, whose perception is determined based on her situation in relation to others and the world. The statistical population included female domestic workers aged 25 to 55 in Tehran, who were selected through snowball and criterion-related sampling. The results of the study show that the outstanding levels of perception among these women are the result of situations of powerlessness, ambiguity and not being at ease that is clearly the result of the predominance of informal relations, away from legal supervision and intermingled with cultural practices that reproduce a structure of power hierarchies at the everyday level. Such a context makes the intention or motivation and daily practices of both sides subject to the possibility of multiple readings; This is largely due to cultural contexts and social beliefs regarding moral systems, dignified principles, and the reasons for placing people in hierarchical social stratifications. We are constantly acting on the basis of perception and awareness affected by such entanglements, and we enable the reproduction of epistemic systems that We are not necessarily aware of its consequences. In the theme of instrumentalization, the participants found themselves in situations of excessive accessibility, worthlessness and identification with the work they do. Ambiguity implied a perceptual background that was, at the first level, affected by borderline relations between the worker and the employer in an informal atmosphere and based on non-standard conditions or lack of supervision and rules, mixed with empathic, authoritarian, pitiful and exploitative behaviors that Their interference in people's experience, in addition to the fact that it had led to indirect indications of such relationships; A form of sensory confusion followed. In the third theme, continuous exposure to the symbols of inequality, difference in social status and levels of Prosperity under contradictory situations could be recognized in the entire narrative of the participants, which shows the state of not being at ease. The meaning of such a space of plurality and multiple/contradictory possibilities of action/reaction can be understood in the shadow of Merleau-Ponty's belief that perception is inevitably accompanied by action; Perception, which is an inevitable aspect of our existence in the world, and always affects us through direct or indirect contact with others, their beliefs, their history, and their stories. A common focus of the literature on paid domestic work in the world is that the gender and social class of domestic workers are central to explaining the structural oppression of domestic work. Such an approach is confirmed in the present study. They show that the inequalities reproduced in domestic service flows are largely maintained through emotional ambiguities in the midst of such intersections.
At the macro level, it can be said that the market model of care - of which rental home care is one of the main pillars - not only reproduces existing social inequalities, but also reinforces the traditional gender division of labor and institutionalized servitude. Unlike the market care model, a public care model that is included in the public system of the country, allows to consider gender, class and cultural equality relations. The public model of care also considers the responsibility of care and the care needs of the lower social classes and marginalized groups. While such a commitment is specific to social biases, it is necessary to problematize gender bias in the public model of care and to revitalize the social struggle to recognize care (including domestic work) and its value.
zahra rezaeinasab; ali feizolahi; maryam keshavarz
Marriage is one of the three milestones in human life, i.e. birth, marriage and death. Marriage is related to changes in a person's view of himself, his wife and the world. A person who gets married is affected by changes in personal and social fields. Therefore, if an important disturbance occurs ...
Marriage is one of the three milestones in human life, i.e. birth, marriage and death. Marriage is related to changes in a person's view of himself, his wife and the world. A person who gets married is affected by changes in personal and social fields. Therefore, if an important disturbance occurs in a person's marriage, all his personal, interpersonal and social processes will be affected. The social developments of the past decades at the global level have faced the family system with new and diverse changes, challenges, issues and needs. During this period, the family has been increasingly under threat due to multiple and complex factors. When the functions of the family, such as biological, social, cognitive and emotional functions are damaged one after another, its members gradually lose their sense of satisfaction. The gradual decrease in the satisfaction of the family members first causes psychological dissociation, then social dissociation, and finally a legal event, which is called divorce.Divorce is one of the factors of breaking up and disintegrating the family unit, which can have many consequences for people in the society.Nowadays, virtual social networks play a role as one of the most important factors in many divorces and disturbances in couples' relationships. The purpose of this research is to study how the marital life changes and breaks up through virtual social networks from the perspective of divorced women in Ilam city. The research paradigm is constructive and interpretive; The research approach is qualitative and the research strategy is phenomenology. Thematic analysis and Brown and Clark's framework have been used for data analysis.Of course, it should be mentioned that two types of methods in phenomenology, i.e. interpretation and explanation, have been used to analyze the results. The studied community includes all the divorced women of Ilam city who have had the experience of using virtual social networks. How to choose the subjects to be studied is based on purposeful sampling. The number of samples until the theoretical saturation stage was estimated to be 15 people. The data collection tool is a semi-structured interview. This research was done to answer three important questions. How do divorced women understand, define and interpret family and marital relations? How do virtual networks become the basis for breaking up and transformation in marital relations? What are the most important virtual social networks used by women that have been effective in breaking up relationships?In this research, the understanding, definition and subjective meaning of divorced women from family and marital relationship in the form of 4 categories "family as a system", "unfavorable image of family", "difference between previous interpretations and existing reality" and "fatalistic attitude" became.The results of the research showed that the evolution and breakup of married life can be analyzed and investigated from the point of view of divorced women in the form of main themes including "creating cocoons of loneliness", "separation from kinship networks", "individual injuries", "destructive", "Instrument of family dysfunction", "consumption display", and "virtual networks as transformation of value system".In this research, the most important social networks used by divorced women, which have been effective in creating coldness and eventually breaking the relationship in these families, are, respectively: Instagram, WhatsApp, Telegram and YouTube. In the current research and based on the statements of divorced women, it can be concluded that virtual social networks have played a role in marital dissatisfaction. The Elamite society and culture and consequently the people in the family institution have been affected by these communication technologies. It seems that virtual social networks cannot be interpreted as inherently bad or good, but its impact on the private and social life of people depends on the amount and time of its use, because as the results and women's conversations show, extreme use and In a way, the addiction to these spaces has been effective in changing and breaking relationships between the members of these families. If a context is provided so that family members can find out how to use these spaces to strengthen their family cohesion and bonds, it will also have positive results, but non-interactive uses of this space will lead to rejection and social isolation of people in the family and Society has created.At the end of the research and according to the obtained results, research and practical suggestions have been presented.
Increasing the level of education of women and girls, increasing the level of employment and economic activities, as well as the presence in the virtual space and membership in social networks, has led to women's rethinking of gender roles. This change in attitude and feeling has led to their more active ...
Increasing the level of education of women and girls, increasing the level of employment and economic activities, as well as the presence in the virtual space and membership in social networks, has led to women's rethinking of gender roles. This change in attitude and feeling has led to their more active presence in the public sphere. They want to gain more power than in the past and play a more important role in redefining and rebuilding society. This tendency of girls to be present in public spaces and activism in social, educational, economic, and political fields is a sign of changes in girls' perception of the role of femininity and girlhood in society. The purpose of this article is to represent the lived experiences and perceptions of Farhangian University female students about girlhood. In this way, this article answers this question: How are lived experiences of female students of Farhangian University about girlhood?
This research is qualitative and describes and analyzes students' lived experiences of girlhood. The phenomenological approach is a suitable method for investigating people's lived experiences. The sample of research in this article is female students of Alborz Farhangian University. Based on this, the lived experiences of 22 students were collected. The age of the participants was between 20 and 23 years and all the students were female. The data collection method is a semi-structured interview. Students answered three general questions.
1- How do you describe being a girl?
2- What issues and problems have you faced due to being a girl?
3- How do you feel and understand the general perception (society, family, acquaintances, etc.) of girlhood?
After collecting the interviews, data analysis began. The data analysis method is thematic analysis. Narratives of the investigated samples of girlhood were categorized into 3 main themes: characteristics of girlhood, problems of girlhood, and agency of girlhood.
1- Characteristics of girlhood: Most of the examined samples highlighted the emotional characteristics and emotional behaviors of girls and emphasized the importance of feelings and emotions in the lives of girls. The studied samples have expressed the feeling of security and peace and the need for affection and attention as the basic needs of girls. Also, the investigated samples listed girls as having emotional characteristics such as patience, sadness, and kindness.
2- Problems of girlhood: The studied samples have expressed the problems of girls in society in three categories: restriction and deprivation, injustice and discrimination, and social misconceptions towards girls. The feeling of restriction and deprivation in the family, social, cultural, and economic spheres for girls is one of the most important problems that the majority of students have mentioned in their experiences. They have stated that they have faced family, social, cultural, and economic deprivations and restrictions in their everyday experiences. Also, the feeling of injustice and discrimination has been repeated in most of the examined samples. Almost all the examined samples have implicitly and openly pointed out that they have faced injustice and discrimination in social life. Also, the investigated samples were dissatisfied with some social misconceptions that are common about girls and protested against them. They have stated in their experiences that many people in society see girls and women as the second sex that needs care and control. Also, they think that women and girls are weak and incomplete so they are dependent on men and they cannot manage their lives without men. These social perceptions towards women and girls strongly cause deprivation and restrictions for girls and provide the necessary grounds and justifications for injustice and discrimination against girls.
3- the agency of girlhood: Examining the lived experiences of student girls shows that they are dissatisfied with some common misconceptions about girls and are looking for active agency and activism in the public and social sphere. The studied students were strongly seeking to change and correct social misconceptions about girls by intervening in society and showing their capabilities and talents.
Half of society is made up of women and girls. One of the methods that help to understand and recognize women's society is to examine the perceptions of femininity and girlhood in the society of women and girls. The results of this research show that girls' perceptions about the roles of femininity and girlhood in society have changed. This change in perception of girlhood has led to their tendency to be more present in public spaces and they want to be active in institutions and areas that determine their social fate in society.
Kamran Rabiei; Tahereh Shariat Manesh
The presence of women in the city and attending informal gatherings is part of their daily lives. The main purpose of this study is to describe women's experience of the relationships they produce and reproduce as social actors in feminine urban hangouts. Influenced by Henri Lefebvre's theory of space ...
The presence of women in the city and attending informal gatherings is part of their daily lives. The main purpose of this study is to describe women's experience of the relationships they produce and reproduce as social actors in feminine urban hangouts. Influenced by Henri Lefebvre's theory of space production, the premise of this study is that space and place were not merely a material product but a product of social relations. The main purpose of the present study is to understand women's lived experiences and spatial perceptions of feminine hangouts and their role in reproducing social structure. In order to achieve these goals, relying on phenomenology, interviews and observation were considered as data collection techniques. In this regard, four types of women's hangouts were selected through targeted sampling and also 27 women from Isfahan were interviewed. The present study showed the process in which the hangouts such as alleyways and women's religious meetings act as two spaces through which women reproduce the traditional relations of society. In fact, these two spaces have the "reproduction and continuity of traditional spatial practice" that leads to the "ideological reproduction of collective space". In contrast, the two venues, the café and the poetry and music circles, serve as hangouts in which a new form of everyday life is produced that is not based on the reproduction of patriarchal values or the continuation of traditional community values. Such hangouts can be termed the "semiotic production of modern social space", which in some cases, such as literary and artistic circles, leads to "intellectual space production and cultural resistance". In combination with other factors, it provides a context for wider cultural and social change.
Rezgar Mohammadi; Zahra Mohammadi
Marriage for the second time will be a big challenge if any of the man or woman or both have children. In this case, there will be challenging factors including various cultural, economic, traditions and beliefs and many other problems. Even the existence of a child will be one of the main reasons for ...
Marriage for the second time will be a big challenge if any of the man or woman or both have children. In this case, there will be challenging factors including various cultural, economic, traditions and beliefs and many other problems. Even the existence of a child will be one of the main reasons for preventing them from marriage. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to examine the experience of the challenges of re-marriage with the presence of children and to identify its final structure in the participants who had experienced that. In this research, a qualitative descriptive phenomenological research has been directed to collect and evaluate information about the challenges of re-marriage with the presence of the children. Fourteen subjects who experienced remarriage in their married life were selected through targeted sampling and data collection was conducted through semi-structured interviews. Data analysis has revealed 4 main themes (themes) and 10 sub-themes (categories). These are including: "Perceiving the problems of having a child" with categories of, behavioral problems and children's adaptation, the presence of the child as an obstacle, the acceptance or rejection of the child of the remarriage; economic and financial dimension with the categories of the importance of economic dimension and the necessity of financial management; social and cultural dimensions with categories of social and cultural inefficiencies, interference of those around them, social facilitation or inhibition; and requirements for re-marriage with the categories of facilitators and importance of proper behaviors and understanding of the spouse. The results of this research have indicated that this is a multidimensional phenomenon with individual, economic, social, cultural and family dimensions. The findings of this study expanded the limited literature on the experience of re-marriage with the presence of the child. Also, the structure of the challenges posed by this study in the field of paternity treatment and premarital counseling has many implications for preventing marital dissatisfaction and increasing marital and family success.
One of the most important issues in social service patterns, as the central place in status of gender in the welfare state, is the situation of women in the labor market, and in particular is the policy of childcare for working mothers. This is problematic topic in various aspects of the family and society ...
One of the most important issues in social service patterns, as the central place in status of gender in the welfare state, is the situation of women in the labor market, and in particular is the policy of childcare for working mothers. This is problematic topic in various aspects of the family and society and, therefore, is the basis for creating wide disagreements in the views, positions and policy strategies. One of the most important ways of understanding the deficiencies and strategies for improving childcare policies is to study the experiences of working mothers of these policies. They are the most relevant group with these policies. This research is based on the phenomenological method and the data have been collected from a sample of mothers working with children under the age of seven. They have been selected based on purposeful sampling to focusing on employees in the universities of Isfahan. The intention is to understand the meaning and experience of the mothers working on Iran's policies in childcare. Therefore, these data can show policy strategies to improve policy making in this sphere. The data analysis based on the seven-level approach delivered five main themes including policy evaluation, intermediate variables, effects and outcomes, and strategies. According to the results of this study, the analysis of working mothers experiences show the childcare policies in Iran from different aspects particularly lack of flexibility in the rules and their implementation in relation to maternal/child conditions and also lack of gender and advocacy in the intellectual domain of the executives and employers. This is not sufficient to provide the peace of working mothers. The results have indicated that various mediating variables such as family circumstances, financial status, work, personality, and awareness of mothers on how they perceive and deal with child care policies have an influence on the different effects of maternal/child/occupational status.
Javad Shojaei; Bahjat Yazdkhasti
Statistics indicates that fertility is falling below the level of replacement. In parallel to this declining trend, we see an increase in the proportion of one-child families. This change in the family structure affects the quality of one-child life and, due to role limitation, the one-child socialization ...
Statistics indicates that fertility is falling below the level of replacement. In parallel to this declining trend, we see an increase in the proportion of one-child families. This change in the family structure affects the quality of one-child life and, due to role limitation, the one-child socialization process has different conditions. Therefore, one-child as a social phenomenon must be studied precisely. The existing studies focus on quantitative explanations of the change in fertility behavior, and the meaning of these behaviors is less well-known. Also, few studies that have been performed on one-child, have "why" assumptions; it is important to identify the "Quiddity" of one-child. The current research, by adopting a phenomenological approach, describes the experience of one-child living in Tehran. The data were collected through a deep interview with twenty girls over the age of 18 years using with purposive sampling, analyzed by smith's six-step technique. Twelve themes were extracted from data analysis. The themes are: " reign in family, in regret of other positions, extreme expectations, loneliness: Just yourself and yourself, need for family support, in search of compensation, credit link, weakness in emotional relationships, destructive worries, parent's educative encounter, self-adjustment, and confrontation with stereotypes". The findings of this study could provide a clear picture of one-child lived experience. In a general conclusion, the lived experiences of subjects show that those who are the only child are usually different in terms of life skills and individual capabilities, and this difference often shows itself in extremity. It should also be noted that one-child, because of lack of conflict of interests, usually has more facilities and welfare leading to emergence of some specific themes listed above.
Farideh Khalajabadi Farahani; Fatemeh Tanha; Fatemeh Abootorabi Zarchi
Today, the number of women who have lost their husbands as a result of divorce is on the rise. The experiences of these women often change in their relationships because of economic and social pressures. This study aims to explore the experiences of divorced women aged under 35about changes in family ...
Today, the number of women who have lost their husbands as a result of divorce is on the rise. The experiences of these women often change in their relationships because of economic and social pressures. This study aims to explore the experiences of divorced women aged under 35about changes in family and social relationships, the results were then applied to the women living in Saveh. Interviewees were in different position with employment and mother. Sampling of this research was done purposefully using snowball method. This research is phenomenological given that women experience about the nature of their relationships after divorce is explored. In family relationships, the essence of women experience was supportive, and in social relations, their relationship was characterized with internal and external social exclusion and unsafe occupational and social environment. This resuls will be have many uses for social protection from women after divorce and also for married couple training about changing relationship after divorce.