In the past two decades, the expansion of ethnic identity move¬ments has increased the number of studies examining the social, cultural, and political dynamics of ethnicity. A review of the studies demonstrates that the gender aspect of ethnicity has been largely over-looked and tended to consider gender as a contextual variable. This article is based on the findings of a survey in four cities of Sistan and Baluchestan Province, to examine the importance of gender attitude in the development of ethnic identity. The hypothesis is that the unequal status of the two ethnic groups (Baluch and Non-Baluch) especially in terms of access to educational opportunities, has resulted in two different attitudes with respect to gender roles. Traditional and relatively modern attitudes of gender have differentiated the two ethnic groups. Additionally, it has impacted the family structure and the social
dynamics within ethnic groups. The analysis of the data attributes many of the differences between groups to differences in the level of education .Other variables, such as different religions, also affect the difference in perspectives and cultural behavior.