The aim of this paper is to identify indicators that demonstrate the lack of gender balance in the Iranian labor market. Based on a review of the theories on the dual labor market and the distinctions between available
employment options in the first and second sectors, the emergence of
employment opportunities and their implications for women will be examined. The indicators have been identified based on data and official national reports. The findings point to the low level of women's participation, despite the increase in their presence as compared with the past decade, as well as the concentration of women in relatively few economic activities. The results also point to the relatively higher level of unemployment among women, especially young women in urban areas, as compared with men's unemployment level. The gender-based employment indicators in different parts of the country speak of alarming gender imbalances. For example, in Lorestan Province, the rate of women's unemployment in urban areas is 53% and 64.6% in rural areas. In urban areas, the problems of women's unemployment and in rural areas the high rate of male unemployment exist at alarming levels.