Document Type : Pazhoheshi- Karbordi


1 Assistant Professor of Management, Department of Public Management, Payame Noor University, Tehran, Iran

2 PhD in Public Management, Islamic Azad University, Deylam Branch, Deylam, Iran


It is generally accepted that women and girls are more vulnerable to the exploitation, poverty, violence and malnutrition than men. They have less opportunity for education and training. Social entrepreneurship gives women the opportunity to control their own destinies. It allows women enjoy greater independency, empowerment and social participation than the traditional and state-owned investments. The present study aimed to provide a social entrepreneurship model with an approach to empowerment of female household heads in the Imam Khomeini Relief Foundation and identification and explanation of effective factors in the formation of this process and its consequences through applying a qualitative research method and the Grounded Theory (GT) strategy. In this regard, interviews were conducted with eighteen university experts and family workers from Imam Khomeini Relief Foundation in Fars province as the statistical sample using a semi-structured theoretical and purposive method. The interview results were analyzed in three stages namely the open, axial and selective coding. According to obtained results, empowering policies create the social entrepreneurship and the phenomenon orientation in the interaction with other factors. Relationships of these factors are shown in the final model of research. Capacity-building, physical-psychological boosting and supportive laws have significant effects on the creation of empowering policies. This attitude ultimately becomes a basis for the emergence of social entrepreneurship phenomenon.


Main Subjects

[1] ابطحی، سیدحسین ؛ شریف زاده، فتاح؛ ابراهیم‌پور، حبیب. (1389). «بررسی مفاهیم، نظریه‌ها و مدل‌های کارآفرینی و ارائة مدل مفهومی»، مدیریت فرهنگ سازمانی، س 8، ش 21، ص 82ـ112.
[2] دانایی‏فرد، حسن؛ اسلامی، آذر. (1389). کاربرد استراتژی پژوهشی نظریة داده‏بنیاد در عمل: ساخت نظریه بی‏تفاوتی سازمانی. تهران: انتشارات دانشگاه امام صادق(ع).
[3] سرمد، زهره؛ بازرگان، عباس؛ حجازی، الهه (1390). روش‏های تحقیق در علوم رفتاری. تهران: انتشارات آگه.
[4] عباس‏زاده، محمد. (1391). «تأملی بر اعتبار و پایایی در تحقیقات کیفی»، جامعه‌شناسی کاربردی، س 23، ش 42، ص 11ـ34.
[5] کرمانی، مهدی؛ خراسانی، مظلوم؛ بهروان، حسین؛ نوغانی دخت بهمنی، محسن. (1394). «توانمندسازی مبتنی بر کارآفرینی اجتماعی: ارائة یک نظریة زمینه‌ای (مطالعة موردی: ستاد توانمندسازی زنان سرپرست خانوار، شهرداری تهران)»، نشریة علوم اجتماعی، س 12، ش 2، ص 107ـ136.
[6] هومن، حیدر علی. (1388). راهنمای عملی پژوهش کیفی. تهران: انتشارات سمت.
[7] Bacq, S. & Janssen, F. (2011). ”The multiple faces of social entrepreneurship: A review of definitionalissues based on geographical and thematic criteria”, Entrepreneurship & Regional Development: An International Journal, 23(5), PP 373-403.
[8] Cala´s, M.B., Smircich, L. and Bourne, K.A. (2009). ”Extending the boundaries: reframing ‘entrepreneurship as social change’ through feminist perspectives”, Academy of Management Review, Vol. 34 No. 3, PP 552-69.
[9] Choi, N., & Majundar, S. (2014). ”Social entrepreneurship as an essentially contested concept: opening a new avenue for systematic future research”, Journal of Business Venturing, 29(3), PP 363–376.
[10] De Bruin, A., Brush, C., & Welter, F. (2007). ”Advancing a framework for coherent research on women’sentrepreneurship”, Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 31(3), PP 323–339.
[11] Defourny, J., & Nyssens, M. (2013). ”Social co-operatives: When social enterprises meet the cooperative tradition”,Journal of Entrepreneurial and Organizational Diversity, 2(2), PP 11–33.
[12] Dey, P, & Steyaert, C. (2012), 2012). ”Social entrepreneurship: critique and the radical enactment of the social”, Social Enterprise Journal, Vol. 8 Iss: 2, PP 90 – 107.
[13] Edwards, M. (2008), Just Another Emperor? The Myths and Realities of Philanthrocapitalism, Demos, New York, NY.
[14] Greico C (2015). Conceptualizing Social Entrepreneurship Where We Are and How to.
[15] Hartigan, P. (2006). ”It’s about people, not profits”, Business Strategy Review, 17(4), PP 42–45.
[16] Huybrechts, B. & Nicholls, A. (2011). Social entrepreneurship: definitions, drivers andchallenges,
[17] Light, P. C. (2009b). ”Social entrepreneurship revisited: Not just anyone, anywhere, in any organization can make breakthrough change”, Stanford Social Innovation Review, Summer, PP 21–22.
[18] Mair, J., & Marti, I. (2009). ”Entrepreneurship in and around institutional voids: a case study from Bangladesh”, Journal of Business Venturing, 24(5), PP 419–435.
[19] Mort, G. S., Weerawardena, J., Carnegie, K. (2003). ”Social entrepreneurship: Towards conceptualization”, International Journal of Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Marketing, 8 (1).
[20] Nicholls, A. (2010b), ”The Institutionalization of Social Investment: The Interplay of Investment Logics and Investor Rationalities”, Journal of Social Entrepreneurship, 1(1), PP 70-100.
[21] Nicholls, A. and Young, R. (2008), ”Preface to the paperback edition”, in Nicholls, A. (Ed.), Social Entrepreneurship: New Models of Sustainable Social Change, Oxford”. University Press, Oxford, PP vii-xxiii.
[22] Nicholls, A. (2005), ”Measuring impact in social entrepreneurship New accountabilities tostakeholders and investors?”, skoll centre for social entrepreneurship. Oxford: University of Oxford.
[23] OECD, (2010). SMEs, Entrepreneurship and Innovation,
[24] Sandberg, J. and Alvesson, M. (2011), ”Ways of construction research questions: gap-spotting or problematization?”, Organization, Vol. 18 No. 1, PP 23-44.
[25] Shaw, E., Gordon, J., Harvey, C., & Maclean, M. (2013). “Exploring contemporary entrepreneurial philanthropy”, International Small Business Journal, 31(5), PP 580–599.
[26] Weerawardena, J., Sullivan Mort, G. (2006). ”Investigating social entrepreneurship: A multidimensional model”, Journal of World Business, 41, PP 21–35.
[27] Westley, F., & Antadze, N. (2010). ”Making a difference: Strategies for scaling social innovation for greater impact”, The innovation Journal: The Public Sector Innovation Journal, 15(2): PP 3-20.
[28] Zahra, S. A., Gedajlovic, E., Neubaum, D. O., & Shulman, J. M. (2009). ”A typology of social entrepreneurs: motives, search processes and ethical challenges”, Journal of Business Venturing, 24(5(, PP 519–532.