Document Type : Research Paper


1 PhD student in Political Sociology: Islamic Azad University, Tehran Branch, Center: Iran: Tehran

2 Assistant Professor, Department of Sociology, Kharazmi University, Tehran, Iran

3 Associate Professor of Sociology, Central Tehran Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran



The issue of women's political participation in developing countries is a complex phenomenon and is related to the dynamics and development of political systems. Women and their participation, especially in politics, seem to have become an important issue in social life in recent decades. The development of political systems in a nation depends on the level of political participation of its citizens regardless of gender. The purpose of this research is to understand and analyze the situation of women's political participation, which was done with qualitative methodology and grounded theory method. For this purpose, in-depth and semi-structured interviews were conducted with 17 women living in Tehran who were selected by purposeful sampling and a combination of snowball strategies and maximum changes. The interviews lasted between 30 minutes and 4 hours on average, and in some cases, the interviews continued in several sessions. The duration of the data collection process through interviews lasted about 6 months. the text of the interviews was read line by line and conceptualized. In the axial coding, these concepts were placed next to each other and based on the semantic overlap, they became central categories. Finally, the core category was obtained at a more abstract level than the previous two stages. It is necessary to mention that the data coding process started from the second interview onwards and until the end of the analysis, the interview and analysis proceeded simultaneously. In order to ensure the quality of the research, TConstructed concepts and research results were regularly shared with the participants during the work process and after the completion of data analysis. Also, a large part of the interviews was recorded (with the full consent of the participants) and the other part was recorded simultaneously during the interview due to the opinion of the participants regarding the lack of consent to audio recording. In terms of observing ethical considerations, participants' consent was obtained before starting the interview. Also, by explaining the purpose, topic and method of the research, the interviewees got to know the work process so that if they don't want to participate in the interview, they will be given sufficient choice. Protection of personal and private information of individuals is a very important dimension in research work, and for this reason, the researcher recorded, recorded and used the data with full consent and with the permission of each person participating in the research, and the individuals were assured that Information will be kept confidential. Among these measures, which were used to prevent the disclosure of the real identity of the participants, was the use of pseudonyms in the registration of their information.After analyzing the data, 85 primary codes, 7 core categories and one core category were extracted through the data coding system: Causal conditions (economic issues and challenges, egalitarian governance), background conditions (unequal political structure and patriarchal challenges), intervening conditions (personal-spiritual factors), strategies (meritism and creating a platform for prosperity) and consequences (active political activism of women and rejection of passivity) political). Also, "women's political participation; "Meaningful and multifaceted action" was counted as the core category and finally, the paradigm model extracted from the data was established. The paradigm model of the research shows the conditions (causal, contextual and intervening), strategies and consequences of women's political participation in Tehran. According to this model, economic conditions and its challenges and political and governance factors are among the important obstacles in women's political participation.The findings indicate that women are active actors and activists in political participation and take actions based on political issues; An action of the type of participation that by identifying the obstacles and facilitating factors can open the way for their active political participation as effective citizens in the field of politics. Finally, it should be mentioned that the present study was accompanied by several limitations and difficulties for interviewing and gaining the cooperation and trust of women who view the society with suspicion. Women who are considered by the family and society as the second gender and have come to believe that they are caught in a vicious cycle, that they do not find any other solution than migration or isolation, and on this basis, it cannot be claimed that the whole semantic constructions of the mentioned people about participation Politically, it has been completely narrated. However, the data and findings of the present research, which were extracted in a comparative manner with other participants and other researches, indicate issues that can be considered even to this extent.


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