Hajiieh Bibi Razeghi Nasrabad; sosan bastani
Following the decrease in the fertility level and the change in the pattern of childbearing in Iran and its demographic, economic and social consequences, efforts have been made in the policy system in recent years to support the family and working women. One of the programs carried out in order to support ...
Following the decrease in the fertility level and the change in the pattern of childbearing in Iran and its demographic, economic and social consequences, efforts have been made in the policy system in recent years to support the family and working women. One of the programs carried out in order to support working women and increase fertility in the country was to increase the length of maternity leave from six months to nine months.
The purpose of this study is to interpret and represent the different dimensions of maternity leave among employed mothers. In fact, this study was an attempt to understand the effects of this policy in the continuation of women's participation in the labor market, improving the health of family members, developing the financial well-being of the family, maintaining the job values of mothers, and mothers' satisfaction, reducing work-family conflict from the perspective of working mothers who are the target group of this policy.
The approach of this research is qualitative. The sample includes 25 employed women with maternity leave experience living in Tehran who was determined through purposive sampling with maximum diversity based on the level of theoretical saturation. The data collection method is an in-depth interview that was conducted in the fall and winter of 2022. This study was carried out in the conditions of the Corona epidemic, so this situation affected both the way of collecting information and the duration of the research. Therefore, some interviews were conducted in person and some by phone. The method of analysis was thematic analysis which was extracted in three methods of open, axial and selective coding.
From the data analysis process, the core category of "paradoxical expression of maternity leave experience" was obtained, which arises from the two themes of "women's dual experience of maternity leave" and "contradictions in policies and executive plans". The category " women's dual experience of maternity leave " is the result of three sub-themes of "strengthening the family institution", "doubt in decision-making" and "job insecurity" which show the dual experience. According to the findings, "body management skills", "promoting the biological health of the child", "quality motherhood" and "helping the work-family balance" indicate women's perception of maternity leave as an opportunity to strengthen the family institution, but the decision phobia that It is caused by "fear of separation from the child" and "hesitation to return to work", and "insecurity and job degradation" is also an important part of mothers' experience. The understanding of employed mothers about how to implement the program also indicates that it is contradictory, which is included in three sub-themes: "lack of legislation", "closure of the private sector" and "openness of the public sector".
Based on the lived experience of the mothers in this study, on the one hand, the maternity leave policy has helped the well-being of women and families and has provided the satisfaction of mothers in order to provide the well-being and peace of mother and child and restore their health. On the other hand, this program has been the source of some worries, fears and uncertainties, and it has many weaknesses due to the contradictions in the policies and executive programs in providing the safety of mind and well-being of working mothers. Of course, various conditions such as economic, family, work environment, physical conditions of mother and child, and the level of knowledge and ability of mothers in understanding and facing issues related to the conflict of work and family roles have created a diverse experience of maternity leave for women.
In this regard, the review of policies related to the protection of working women shows that there are good protective laws in Iran. Existing laws such as breastfeeding hours, part-time work, child care services, reducing the working hours of women with special conditions can have a great impact on preventing personal and family issues, along with maternity leave. However, in addition to the ambiguity in the laws, the enforcement guarantee of these policies and laws has not been specified. In some cases, the implementation of laws has been left to the authority of the occupational organization. Therefore, it has caused the non-fulfillment of various support policies for working mothers. Therefore, it is important that maternity leave policy needs to be reviewed, monitored and redesigned according to the needs and conditions of mothers, children and employers.
Fatemeh Mansourian; Narges Nikkhah Ghamsari; Mohammad Ganji; sosan bastani
The main purpose of this study is to investigate and present the viewpoints of employed men and women graduates and the construct of gender in the workplace. In this study, in addition to avoiding one-dimensional and narrow view in the analysis of employment and gender, a GrandedTheory approach and ...
The main purpose of this study is to investigate and present the viewpoints of employed men and women graduates and the construct of gender in the workplace. In this study, in addition to avoiding one-dimensional and narrow view in the analysis of employment and gender, a GrandedTheory approach and an exploratory one were employed. The qualitative data were collected through semi-structured interviews and purposive sampling method from 22 educated men and women working in Tehran. The data were analyzed with MAXQDA software and data-driven theory method.The paradigm model obtained from interpreting the viewpoints of the population under study indicated that the core phenomenon (gender construction of employment) could be defined based on the interactions of factors such as causal conditions (gender relations governing the work environment, gender beliefs and constructive rules); underlying conditions (challenges of the workplace, the nature of the workplace and the support of communication networks) and intervening conditions (recognizing the professional position, job quality and the paradox of the university and the labor market). While confirming qualitative findings, the analysis of data revealed that women experienced the gender construct and unequal access to resources more than men in workplace. In the final analysis it could be said that working women, when exposed to unequal access to opportunities and resources, can change the way of access to resources with their active action strategy, but this does not imply absolute freedom. The structure is imposed by rules and resources such as gender relations in the workplace, gender beliefs, constructive rules, lack of communication network support, authoritarian work environment, workplace challenges and paradoxes between the university and the labor market and it changes and limits women actions. Men, like women, acknowledged the existence of a masculine dominant environment in work, the existence of discriminatory laws, the challenges of the workplace, the paradox of the university, and the tendency of the labor market to exclude and marginalize women. Based on these results and a multivariate view of gender construction in the workplace, it is possible for women to achieve greater participation and leading the workplace to move towards avoiding gender domination by reviewing the employment policies, reforming managers' attitudes and balancing power in the family.
Susan Bastani; Shohre Rowshani; Nahle Gharavi Naeeni
The current study aims to investigate the way married women living in Tehran face with disruption of sense of tranquility in marital life. This research has been done using grounded theory method and deep interview technique. As a result of encounter with disruption of sense of tranquility, which is ...
The current study aims to investigate the way married women living in Tehran face with disruption of sense of tranquility in marital life. This research has been done using grounded theory method and deep interview technique. As a result of encounter with disruption of sense of tranquility, which is the result of the gap between the assets and demands of women, it has become necessary for women to adopt a set of strategies with two general approaches of "change in assets" including modification of the spousal relationship, management of interactive problems with families, improvement of the status of children, attention to self and removal of structural barriers, with the aim of changing the available status into a desirable one, and "change in demands" including reduced demands, patience and forgiveness and selection of the null relationship, with the aim of accepting the available status. Choosing these strategies and their effectiveness is affected by a set of conditions such as “decision-making factors" including the husband's approach, religious beliefs, dominance of affection and exterior constraint.
Khadije Safiri; Sosan Bastani; Leila Ghorani Damdabaja
The mail goal of the Present paper is to study the influence of informal social networkssupport on job satisfaction of married women using the direct effect of social support andDurkheimian anomie theories and Network analysis perspective. It has been performed usingsurvey method and questionnaire. Statistical ...
The mail goal of the Present paper is to study the influence of informal social networkssupport on job satisfaction of married women using the direct effect of social support andDurkheimian anomie theories and Network analysis perspective. It has been performed usingsurvey method and questionnaire. Statistical population is constituted of all working andmarried women (20-55) living in Ardabil. Participants were 356 women chosen by multistagecluster sampling. The Cronbach's Coefficient Alpha of 0.70 for job satisfaction and 0.79 forsocial support shows face validity of this variables and appropriate reliability of the tests.Results indicate that the women's satisfaction level of job is high and also support levelreceived from informal networks is average. After the husband, among different informalnetworks, relative networks in emotional support and colleague networks in instrumental andinformational support have the most support rate, while neighborhood networks have the leastrate of support. The results of correlation coefficient show that social support as a mediatorvariable in the relationship of network size and frequency of contact with job satisfactionoperates. Moreover, regression results show that age, network size, frequency of contact andinformal social networks support are affective variables on job satisfaction of married women.