Document Type : Research Paper
1 استادیار جامعه شناسی دانشگاه علامه طباطبائی
2 Allameh Tabataba'i University
The primary goal of this study is observing conceptual changes of loyalty, The research questions are as follows: What is the difference between girls' and their mothers' understanding of loyalty? And what is their reaction to the Disloyalty of their spouses? Through reviewing related studies, it is clear that the most important innovative aspect of this study is that it attempts to analyze the experience of two generations of daughters and mothers in the field of loyalty understanding. Also, another innovative aspect of this study is that it intends to deal with their strategies of achieving loyalty and confronting disloyalty. Theoretical concepts such as Bowman's "Liquid Love", Giddens' "Pure Relationship Theory", Illouz's "Emotional Capitalism", Badiou's "In Praise of Love", and "Ideal Types of social actions" were used to raise theoretical sensitivities. The research method is thematic analysis. The data were collected using semi-structured interview technique. The samples were Tehranin married daughters aged 23-33 and their mothers , Because the average of age marriage in girls located in Tehran is 28 years and the sample was selected 5 years before and after the average (13 mothers and 13 daughters). According to primary and secondary objectives, we grouped 15 main categories into three dimeans.
The first dimension is the semantic conception of loyalty, including: multiple elements of loyalty meaning, intergenerational interpretation of loyalty concept, liberating loyalty, loyalty as commitment to housekeeping roles, and commodified love and loyalty; the second dimension contains strategies which include: the restorative insight of mothers, daughters' eliminative reaction, effective persuasion, legitimation strategy, a ternary mixture of "conversation, counseling, friendship-basis", and reconsideration in the relationship; We named the final dimension as intervenors, which includes: the shadow of the paternal family and mothers being as referent, religious-moral beliefs and guarantees of loyalty, fear of disputes escalation in case of family intervention, and the importance of the chosen strategies in crucial situations.
The findings shows there are diversity meaning related to loyalty among participants.
A) The dominant concept of loyalty in both generations is sexual and emotional betrayal.
b) Another common meaning is that loyalty is kind of relationship based on adherence to commitment, roles and responsibilities.
c) Another meaning of loyalty which is generally emphasized in daughters, loyalty as a kind inner emotional bond, a high level of intimacy, the love and the expression of love.
d) Loyalty as one of the most important moral and religious principles which most emphasized by the mothers.
e) Loyalty is meaningful as long as it does not hinder their freedom as seen in daughters.
The results show that the meaning of loyalty largely depends on the age in participants , mothers commonly percept disloyalty as betray, and daughters who are closer to mothers in the terms of age have a similar definition, but in younger daughters, the definition of loyalty is more biased to concepts such as love, intimacy, and liberation. Religious beliefs influence the choice of strategies especially in mothers ; The academic capital of mothers and daughters affects the way they interpret the loyalty, and those with higher academic capital, even in more socially prestigious areas, have newer and more modern perceptions of loyalty, which has been mentioned in the previous chapters; The cultural capital, primarily academic capital, in the family, especially in mother, play a very important role helping daughter in choosing strategies while facing challenges, when cultural capital is high, her experience and guidance, make solving daughter's marital issues easier, directing daughters to the efficient family consultations, sticking to conversations instead of spreading issues to the families, are some of such strategies. On the other hand, when the cultural capital is low, facing issues incorrectly by both parties, disloyalty or even a sense of it led to divorce; The age, also has an impact on choosing strategies, restorative strategies are more common to mothers, while eliminative one, commodified emotional relationships, and consultation are more common among daughters. Mothers rarely use consultation, sometimes with an incorrect imagination of it because of encouraging youth to divorce; Low economic capital affects chosen strategies in both daughters and mothers. Those from weaker economic backgrounds often opt for restorative and legitimation strategies over eliminative one. Eliminative strategy is more common among economically independent people.
Keywords: Daughters, loyalty, meaning, mechanism, Mothers, Tehran