نوع مقاله : پژوهشی- کاربردی

نویسنده

استاد اقتصاد، دانشگاه الزهرا(س)

چکیده

این مقاله به بررسی تأثیرات متقابل باروری و برابری جنسیتی در ایران با استفاده از داده‏های های پانل استانی در دورۀ زمانی 1387ـ1391 می‏پردازد. برای دستیابی به این هدف، اثر دو نوع برابری، برابری در خانواده و برابری در نهادهای فردگرا، بر باروری بررسی شده است. برای این منظور، دو مدل باروری و برابری جنسیتی برآورد شده است. مدل اول نشان می‏دهد که با افزایش برابری جنسیتی (در کل و در بازار کار) باروری از یک الگوی U (وارونه) تبعیت می‏کند؛ یعنی ابتدا افزایش برابری جنسیتی باروری را کاهش می‏دهد، ولی پس از رسیدن به نقطۀ عطف باروری، افزایش می‏یابد. مدل دوم نمایانگر یک رابطۀ U‌مانند بین باروری و برابری جنسیتی (در کل و در تحصیلات) است. به عبارت دیگر، افزایش باروری ابتدا برابری جنسیتی را افزایش می‏دهد، سپس پس از رسیدن به نقطه‏ای افزایش برابری جنسیتی را به همراه دارد. نتایج دلالت بر این دارد که در ایران انتقال از باروری بالا به باروری زیر سطحِ جایگزینی همراه با برابریِ سریع در نهادهای فردگرا (مانندآموزش)، ولی برابری کمتر در دیگر نهاد فردگرا، یعنی مشارکت در بازار کار، بوده است. به علاوه این انتقال همراه با برابری سریع در نهاد خانواده، و‌لی برابری کمتر در نهادهای خانواده‌گرا، مانند توسعة سیاست‏های حمایتی مناسب در دورة بارداری و فرزندداری، توسعة ترتیبات کاری انعطاف‌پذیر محیط کار بوده است.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات

عنوان مقاله [English]

Gender equality and fertility in Iran

نویسنده [English]

  • Zahra Afshari

Professor of Economics, Alzahra University, Tehran, Iran

چکیده [English]

Using cross-provinces and panel regressions, this paper investigates the interrelationship between gender equality and fertility in Iran for the period 2007-2012. The article attempts to explain the low fertility rate in Iran by distinguishing between two types of gender equity, i.e. gender equity in individual-oriented institutions and gender equity in family-oriented institutions. For this purpose, two models; i.e. fertility and gender equality,  are estimated. The first model shows that as gender equality (in general, and gender equality in labor market) increases, fertility follows a U shape pattern. The second model confirms a U shape relationship between fertility increase and gender equality (in general and in education). The results show that the transition from very high fertility to replacement-level fertility in Iran has been associated with a rapid shift toward high levels of gender equity in individual institutions such as education but with low levels of  equality in market employment, in combination with high level of gender equity within the family and  low level of  family-oriented institutions.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • gender equality
  • fertility
  • Iran
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