فرایندپژوهی تکوین رشتۀ مطالعات زنان معطوف به تغییرات پارادایمی جنسیت (مطالعۀ موردی: دانشگا‌ه‌های امریکا)

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دکتری فلسفة تطبیقی و پژوهشگر مقیم مرکز تحقیقات زن و خانواده

2 استادیار گروه مطالعات امریکا، دانشکدة مطالعات جهان، دانشگاه تهران

چکیده

رشتة مطالعات زنان از دهة 1970 در امریکا تأسیس شده و به دلیل تعداد، تنوع موضوع و مواد درسی رشد روزافزونی داشته است. از وجوه مهم تکوین این رشته، پیوستگی به واقعیتِ در حال تغییر وضعیت زنان در جامعة امریکاست. تأسیس این رشته در کنار جنبش‌های مدنی زنان و با عنایت به تغییرات مفهومی و توسعة مصداقی حقوق و توانمندسازی زنان قابل پیگیری است. بیش از یک دهه است که رشتة مطالعات زنان در امریکا، به‌رغم پویایی درون‌گفتمانی، با چالشی برخاسته از تغییرات پارادایمی حوزة جنسیت رو‌به‌رو هستند؛ به‌نحوی‌که حتی نام این رشته ناکافی و نارسا قلمداد می‏شود. مقالة حاضر، با روش فرایندپژوهی مبتنی بر آثار تاریخ‏نگارانة مطالعات زنان در امریکا، به تحلیل انعکاس تغییرات پارادایمی زنان و جنسیت در تکوین این رشته‌ و چالش‌های پیش روی آن می‌پردازد. فرایند تکوین این رشته در سه دوره، اعم از پارادایم سیستم جنس دوگانه: زنان در برابر مردان (1970ـ اوایل دهة 1980)، تغییر پارادایم از زن به زنان‌ـ از زنان به جنسیت (دهة 1980ـ نیمة دهة 1990) و پارادایم تفوق گرایش‌های جنسی و هویت‌های جنسیتی (نیمة دهة 1990 تاکنون)، واکاوی شده است. فهم این پویایی گفتمانی در امریکا به فهم گفتمان جنسیت در سطح بین‌المللی می‌انجامد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Development of Women’s Studies Programs in View of the Gender Paradigm Shifts: A Process Tracing in the United States

نویسندگان [English]

  • Fatemeh Ghasempour 1
  • Zohreh Nosrat Kharazmi 2
1 Resident Researcher of Women and Family Research Center
2 Assistant Professor, Faculty of World Studies, University of Tehran
چکیده [English]

The departments of Women’s Studies were established in 1970s in the United States. The quantities of the departments and the subjects they cover have increasingly grown during these years by a significant co-relation with the reality of change in women’s status. Women’s Studies are established as the academic wing of the women’s civil movements and it can be understood in terms of changing meanings of the women’s rights and empowerment. Despite its discursive dynamism, Women’s Studies subject is challenged by the paradigmatic shift of gender that has made it insufficient in the content and even in its name. The present study, then, employs the process tracing method based on the records of the Women’s Studies historians to indicate the reflection of women and gender paradigm shifts and their subsequent opportunities and challenges. The process tracing is conducted in three historical phases including binary sex paradigm: women against men (1970-early 1980s), paradigm change from woman to women- women to gender issues (1980s- Mid 1990s), and the dominance of the paradigm of sexual orientation and gender identity (Mid 1990s- Present). To trace this process within the United States is expected to reveal the gender discourse globally.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • women’s studies
  • gender equality
  • women’s empowerment
  • sexual orientation and gender identity
  • the United States of America

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