تأملی بر تحول پارادایمی مسئلۀ «مادری» در اندیشۀ فمینیستی

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشیار گروه مردم‌شناسی دانشکدة علوم اجتماعی دانشگاه تهران

2 دانشجوی دکتری مردم‌شناسی دانشکدة علوم اجتماعی دانشگاه تهران

چکیده

تجربة زنان از مادری، متأثر از بسترهای متنوع زندگی و گوناگونی هویتی در آن‌ها، به شیوه‌ای اجتماعی، اقتصادی و سیاسی ساخته و پرداخته می‌شود. این مقاله به موضعی که جریان‌های مختلف معرفت فمینیستی به مسئلة «مادری» در مقام نظر و عمل اتخاذ می‌کنند می‌پردازد تا معانی، مفروضات و دلالت‌های مرتبط با آن را بشناسد و بتواند تحولات تاریخی و معناشناختی این مسئله‌یابی را دریابد و تأثیرپذیری آن را از جریان‌های سیاسی و تحولات تاریخی نشان دهد. این پژوهش که مبتنی بر مرور تاریخی مسئلة مادری در اندیشة فمینیستی بود، سه چرخش پارادایمی را در رابطه با مسئلة مادری نشان می‌دهد. پارادایم طرد و ذات‌گرایی که فمنیسم رادیکال و فمنیسم لیبرال را دربر‌می‌گیرد و با مفاهیمی چون پدرسالاری، ستم و وابستگی گره خورده است؛ پارادایم پدیدارشناختی که موج سوم، فمنیسیم سیاه و فمنیسم پسااستعماری آن را به وجود می‌آورند، بر تمرکز بر تجارب زیسته و تفاوت‌ها مبتنی است و در‌نهایت پارادایم مبتنی بر اکتیویسم، فشار از پایین و تغییرات اجتماعی که حاصل برآمدن نظریة تفکر مادرانه و مادری توانمندانه بوده است و با اعتراض به سکون و انفعال الگوهای حاکم بر مادری، مسئله را بازگرداندن اقتدار و مشروعیت به مادران و توجه به شیوه‌های خلاقانه و مخربِ شناختِ آن‌ها معرفی می‌کند که می‌تواند به ایجاد تغییرات اجتماعی، توسعة فراگیر صلح و دنیایی انسانی‌تر بینجامد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Enigma of “Mothering” in Feminist Theory and its Paradigm Shifts

نویسندگان [English]

  • Maryam Rafatjah 1
  • Abu Ali Vedadhir 1
  • Shiva Alinaqian 2
1 Associate Professor of Social Anthropology, Social Science, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran
2 PhD Candidate in Social Anthropology, Univerisity of Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

The experiences of women from mothering are influenced by various living conditions and identities which are socially, economically and politically constructed. This paper reviews the viewpoints of different feminist epistemologies about the issue of “mothering” in terms of theory and practice in order to understand the meanings, assumptions, and implications associated with it, and to find out the historical and theoretical changes of this issue and its impact on political trends and historical transformations. This study based on a historical review of mothering in feminist theory, indicates three paradigms: 1) paradigm of rejection and essentialism including radical and liberal feminism linked to some concepts such patriarchy, oppression and dependence; 2) paradigm of phenomenology including third wave feminism, black feminism, and post-colonial feminism focusing on life experiences and differences; and 3) paradigm of activism, pressure and social change resulted from the theory of maternal thinking and empowered mothering by protesting the discursive patterns of mothering. This introduces restoring authority and legitimacy in mothers and considers the creative and subversive ways of cognition and knowledge in mothering, which can lead to social changes, a widespread development of peace and a more humane world.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • mothering
  • feminism
  • Life experience
  • intersectionality
  • activism
  • empowered mothering
  • post-colonialism
  • maternal thinking

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