عنوان مقاله [English]
This paper bases on an ethnographic study on the sexual experiences of 15 male university students belong to the 1990s generation in Tehran. Through conducting in-depth and semi-structured interviews with men to understand their sexual experiences at an intersection with their socio-cultural, economic, and religious backgrounds, we highlight the role of female virginity in reconstructing hegemonic as well as "tormented," "ethical," and "loose" masculinities. By applying Connell's theory of "Hegemonic Masculinity," this paper analyses the differences and similarities between each type and argues masculinity not as a unified meaning but as a spectrum. On one end of the range is the hegemonic masculinity, which acts upon the double standard of virginity and finds it an essential feature in defining manhood. Next to it, there is a type that this paper calls "Tormented Masculinity," which considers virginity significant, and while has pre-marital sexual relations with virgin girls, feels guilty for it. Next in the spectrum is a type with a more complex approach named "Ethical Masculinity". It takes responsibility for its sexual conduct by evaluating women's social contexts and the importance of virginity for their family and future husbands. However, this paper argues that this masculinity still defines itself by controlling female sexuality, similar to hegemonic masculinity. On the other end of the spectrum, "Loose Masculinity" ignores the norm of female virginity and position himself against it. In general, by showing interviewees' different attitudes and reactions, this paper argues the multiple meanings of the norm of female virginity for this generation and the diverse range of masculine ideals that it constructs.